Victimology is the criminology branch that studies the victims rather than the offenders. It analyzes a victim’s characteristics, role in the criminal justice system, psychological state, and factors that increase their chance of being targeted. Understanding and studying victims are essential for developing effective deterrence methods because it helps criminologists better understand all the actors’ role in a crime.
Through the study of victims, experts can determine the risk factors that increase an individual’s chance of becoming a victim. If the reason someone is victimized is unknown, it’s nearly impossible to devise a method that will lower the rate of victimization. To better explain why specific individuals are victimized, criminologists developed four theories of victimology.
What are the 4 Theories of Victimology?
- Victim Precipitation Theory
- Lifestyle Theory
- Deviant Place Theory
- Routine Activities Theory
Scholars created victim precipitation, lifestyle, deviant place, and routine activities theories of victimology to guide crime victims’ research and study. Each of these theories attempts to explain the various reasons an individual may be victimized. The approaches allow experts to devise plans to lower the victimization rate of those who are disproportionately at risk. Victimology is essential to criminology because a victim is needed for a crime to occur. Therefore, a victim’s characteristics need to be studied to understand why criminals target specific groups.
Keep reading to learn about the four theories of victimology and how they help criminologists develop effective deterrence methods.
What is Victimization?
Before we can look at the different victimology theories, we should know what victimization is because it is the field’s primary focus. Victimization can be defined as the outcome of an individual or institution’s intentional action to exploit, oppress, or harm someone else. It also includes destroying or illegally acquiring someone else’s property or possessions. These actions can cause psychological, emotional, physical, sexual, or economic harm to the victim.
Criminologists began to study a victim’s relation to crime to counter criminal behavior and help victims cope afterward. These studies have helped criminologists realize the importance of a victim’s role in a crime.
Studying victimology helps criminologists better understand the victim and why they were targeted or victimized. Scholars formed the theories of victimology to understand the different factors that could impact someone’s chance of being victimized.
Victim Precipitation Theory
The victim precipitation theory states that some victims initiate the confrontation that leads to their victimization, whether actively or passively. Various research studies have found that people who have an impulsive personality, rendering them as abrasive or obnoxious to others, may have a higher victimization rate. The reason is that impulsive people are antagonistic, making them more likely to be targeted. Also, they tend to be risky and will get involved in dangerous situations without being cautious.
Passive precipitation means that the victim unconsciously behaves in a way or has specific characteristics that instigate or encourage an attack. Passive precipitation is typically the result of a power struggle; job promotions, successes, love interests, etc., can all give rise to a power struggle and cause passive precipitation. People who are likely to encourage a crime passively include minorities, political activists, members of LGBTQ+, and other individuals who lead an alternative lifestyle. These groups are often targeted because of the unintentional threat they pose to authority.
Active precipitation, on the other hand, occurs when the victim engages in threatening or provocative actions. Active precipitation is controversial because many argue whether or not it is ever okay to “blame” the victim for the occurrence of a crime. This is true, especially in rape cases where flirtation may have been present. However, there was no consent to sexual intercourse. For this reason, we must be cautious when discussing active participation since it does not apply to every case.
The lifestyle theory maintains that criminals target individuals due to their lifestyle choices. Many victims’ options expose them to criminal offenders and situations where crime is likely to occur.
Examples of lifestyle choices that may raise one’s risk of victimization include:
- Walking alone at night.
- Living in the “bad” part of town.
- Being promiscuous.
- Drinking in excess.
- Doing drugs.
- Associating with felons.
This theory also cites research that shows a correlation between the lifestyles of victims and offenders. Both tend to be impulsive and lack self-control, making the victim more likely to put themselves in high-risk situations and the offender more likely to engage in an unlawful act.
Deviant Place Theory
The deviant place theory is the theory that the more often a victim visits a dangerous place, the more likely they will be exposed to crime, which raises their chance of being victimized. The theory states that the victim does not play a role in encouraging the crime but is still prone to being a victim because they live in a socially disorganized high-crime location. Even though they may not engage in risky behaviors or lead a dangerous lifestyle, residents of areas with high crime rates have the most significant risk of coming into contact with offenders.
Minorities tend to be victimized at higher rates because of social and economic inequality. Minorities are more likely to reside in low-income neighborhoods with high crime rates and cannot move from areas with significant criminal activity compared to their caucasian neighbors.
This theory of victimology also proposes that safety measures taken in dangerous areas may be of little to no use since it’s the area’s demographic that increases victimization rather than the victim’s lifestyle choices. If an individual lives in a deviant area, the only way to lower their chance of being a victim of a crime is to leave the deviant and dangerous neighborhood for one that is less deviant and has a lower crime rate.
Routine Activities Theory
The routine activities theory states there must be three factors present for a crime to occur. These factors reflect the regular activities incorporated in a typical American’s lifestyle, and they increase an individual’s risk of victimization when they converge.
Routine activities that raise one’s risk of victimization:
- The availability of suitable targets, including homes that contain high-value items that are relatively easy to obtain.
- The absence of capable guardians. Lack of guardianship such as the police, a homeowner, neighbors, friends, and relatives can increase the probability of a crime. A target that is undefended and attractive is the holy grail for a motivated criminal. However, if a target is well-defended by capable guardianship, even the most seasoned criminal may hesitate to attack.
- The presence of motivated offenders who have criminal intent and the ability to act on their plan. For example, a substantial amount of jobless teenagers. If there is a lack of motivated criminals in an area, the crime rate is likely to be lower than the rate in an area with significantly more motivated offenders.
If all of these variables are present, a crime can occur, and the risk of victimization will increase. However, if one or more of the variables are absent, then a crime is unlikely to happen. For example, many affluent neighborhoods have low crime rates even though there’s an availability of suitable targets. The low crime rates can be attributed to high guardianship such as security systems or a neighborhood watch program and lack of motivated offenders to carry out criminal acts.
Each of the victimology theories analyzes a risk factor that could lead one to become the victim of a crime. By analyzing the risks that lead to victimization, scholars can understand why crime occurs and strategize deterrence methods. Without a proper understanding of the factors that increase one’s risk of being victimized, it is challenging to take preventative measures against criminal acts.
Victimologists aim to analyze a victim’s psychology, their relationship, interaction with the offender, and their area of residence to pin-point the elements or characteristics that lead to being the target of a crime. The four theories of victimology look at the various risks of victimization from different perspectives. Some of the theories focus on the individual’s role in the event of a crime, while others examine society’s role in increasing crime rates. By studying these theories, victimologists learn what factors cause-specific individuals to have higher chances of being victimized.
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